bartolomé de las casas et les amérindiens

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All in all, modern historians tend to disregard the numerical figures given by Las Casas, but they maintain that his general picture of a violent and abusive conquest represented reality. [68], Las Casas returned to Spain, leaving behind many conflicts and unresolved issues. It was important for Las Casas that this method be tested without meddling from secular colonists, so he chose a territory in the heart of Guatemala where there were no previous colonies and where the natives were considered fierce and war-like. [99] Menéndez Pelayo also accused Las Casas of having been instrumental in suppressing the publication of Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda's "Democrates Alter" (also called Democrates Secundus) out of spite, but other historians find that to be unlikely since it was rejected by the theologians of both Alcalá and Salamanca, who were unlikely to be influenced by Las Casas. Et non, l'Eglise Catholique ne s'est pas rendue coupable de tous les maux dont on l'accuse. Unlike some other priests who sought to destroy the indigenous peoples' native books and writings, he strictly opposed this action. Originally planned as a six-volume work, each volume describes a decade of the history of the Indies from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 to 1520, and most of it is an eye-witness account. [50], Also in 1536, before venturing into Tuzulutlan, Las Casas went to Oaxaca, Mexico, to participate in a series of discussions and debates among the bishops of the Dominican and Franciscan orders. Il fait le voyage en 1498, avec son père, puis en 1502. The Indians had been provoked to attack the settlement of the monks because of the repeated slave raids by Spaniards operating from Cubagua. Et accédez à des documents multimédia, exclusifs et surprenants ! 11 Historia de Indias, Obras escogidas, t. CX, Madrid, 1958, p. 463 a. Las Casas managed to secure the support of the king's Flemish courtiers, including the powerful Chancellor Jean de la Sauvage. [15] He participated in slave raids and military expeditions against the native Taíno population of Hispaniola. Il est ordonné prêtre à Saint-Domingue puis devient en 1544 évêque de San Cristobal, dans la pauvre province du Chiapas, au Mexique. In addition, his critique towards the colonizers served to bring awareness to his audience on the true meaning of Christianity, to dismantle any misconceptions on evangelization. Né à Séville en 1484 (ou 1474) et mort à Madrid le 17 juillet 1566, Bartolomé de las Casas fut un prêtre dominicain et missionnaire qui dénonça les crimes perpétrés par les soldats et colons espagnols, contre les Amérindiens. • Le verdict du Légat fut prononcé en faveur de B. de Las Casas à savoir que les Amérindiens ont bien une âme. The book was banned by the Aragonese inquisition in 1659. [59] The New Laws made it illegal to use Indians as carriers, except where no other transport was available, it prohibited all taking of Indians as slaves, and it instated a gradual abolition of the encomienda system, with each encomienda reverting to the Crown at the death of its holders. They surpassed also the English and the French and some of the people of our own Spain; and they were incomparably superior to countless others, in having good customs and lacking many evil ones. Here, Las Casas argued, Indians could be better governed, better taught and indoctrinated in the Christian faith, and would be easier to protect from abuse than if they were in scattered settlements. To make the proposal palatable to the king, Las Casas had to incorporate the prospect of profits for the royal treasury. ... Like one who kills a son before his father's eyes is the man who offers sacrifice from the property of the poor. Heurtant de front les colons et aussi les Indiens, échouant à convertir ceux-ci par la douceur, il est contraint de quitter son diocèse deux ans plus tard. Las Casas's influence turned the favor of the court against Secretary Conchillos and Bishop Fonseca. [112] In 2002 the Church began the process for his beatification. [82], The text, written 1516, starts by describing its purpose: to present "The remedies that seem necessary in order that the evil and harm that exists in the Indies cease, and that God and our Lord the Prince may draw greater benefits than hitherto, and that the republic may be better preserved and consoled. Having been summoned to a meeting among the bishops of New Spain to be held in Mexico City on January 12, 1546, he left his diocese, never to return. Some historians, such as Castro, argue that he was more of a politician than a humanitarian and that his liberation policies were always combined with schemes to make colonial extraction of resources from the natives more efficient. Languages, Empires, Nations.) He described the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples.[2]. Le mythe du « bon sauvage » – Qu’appelle-t-on le mythe du Bon Sauvage ? Some privileges were also granted to the initial 50 shareholders in Las Casas's scheme. Sepúlveda argued that the subjugation of certain Indians was warranted because of their sins against Natural Law; that their low level of civilization required civilized masters to maintain social order; that they should be made Christian and that this in turn required them to be pacified; and that only the Spanish could defend weak Indians against the abuses of the stronger ones. Las Casas was devastated by the tragic result of his peasant migration scheme, which he felt had been thwarted by his enemies. [8] For centuries, Las Casas's birthdate was believed to be 1474; however, in the 1970s, scholars conducting archival work demonstrated this to be an error, after uncovering in the Archivo General de Indias records of a contemporary lawsuit that demonstrated he was born a decade later than had been supposed. In the end a much smaller number of peasant families were sent than originally planned, and they were supplied with insufficient provisions and no support secured for their arrival. The Franciscans used a method of mass conversion, sometimes baptizing many thousands of Indians in a day. To Las Casas's dismay Bishop Marroquín openly defied the New Laws. Décidé à rompre avec les pratiques coloniales, il entre plus tard dans l'ordre religieux des dominicains. [11] Following the testimony of Las Casas's biographer Antonio de Remesal, tradition has it that Las Casas studied a licentiate at Salamanca, but this is never mentioned in Las Casas's own writings. The material contained in the Apologetic History is primarily ethnographic accounts of the indigenous cultures of the Indies – the Taíno, the Ciboney, and the Guanahatabey, but it also contains descriptions of many of the other indigenous cultures that Las Casas learned about through his travels and readings. BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS CASAS ET LA TRAITE DES NÈGRES. INDIENS ET BARBARES Le génocide Amérindiens et la spoliation de leur continent. Las Casas doit affronter sur ce point le frère Juan Ginès de Sepulveda (60 ans), chapelain de l'empereur et théologien émérite. However, the reforms were so unpopular back in the New World that riots broke out and threats were made against Las Casas's life. Las Casas feared that at the rate the exploitation was proceeding it would be too late to hinder their annihilation unless action were taken rapidly. Las Casas's point of view can be described as being heavily against some of the Spanish methods of colonization, which, as he described them, inflicted great losses on the indigenous occupants of the islands. [113], He has also come to be seen as an early advocate for a concept of universal human rights. To secure the grant, Las Casas had to go through a long court fight against Bishop Fonseca and his supporters Gonzalo de Oviedo and Bishop Quevedo of Tierra Firme. Bartolomé de las Casas (US: / l ɑː s ˈ k ɑː s ə s / lahs KAH-səs; Spanish: [baɾtoloˈme ðe las ˈkasas] (); 11 November 1484 – 18 July 1566) was a 16th-century Spanish landowner, friar, priest, and bishop, famed as a historian and social reformer. One detractor, the abolitionist David Walker, called Las Casas a "wretch... stimulated by sordid avarice only," holding him responsible for the enslavement of thousands of Africans. [39], When he arrived in Spain, his former protector, regent and Cardinal Ximenez Cisneros, was ill and had become tired of Las Casas's tenacity. Pp. The two orders had very different approaches to the conversion of the Indians. [4] Later in life, he retracted this position, as he regarded both forms of slavery as equally wrong. Bartolomé de Las Casas, qui a été évêque en Amérique centrale, est appelé pour participer à ce débat, qui a lieu à Valladolid en 1550. His extensive writings, the most famous being A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies and Historia de Las Indias, chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies. This required the establishment of self-governing Indian communities on the land of colonists – who would themselves organize to provide the labor for their patron. [74], In 1552, Las Casas published A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. Le sort des Amérindiens devient une question religieuse : il s'agit de définir la nature de leur âme et la façon légitime de les traiter. By Daniel Castro. Homme de foi et de convictions, le religieux dominicain Bartolomé de Las Casas a proclamé pour la première fois, il y a un demi-millénaire, l'universalité des droits de l'Homme. Selon lui, il ne faut pas convertir les populations par la contrainte. The only translations into English are the 1971 partial translation by Andree M. Collar, and partial translations by Cynthia L. Chamberlin, Nigel Griffin, Michael Hammer and Blair Sullivan in UCLA's Repertorium Columbianum (Volumes VI, VII and XI). Très tôt, l'ancien descubridor s'indigne du sort fait à ses habitants, les « Indiens » et, pour leur défense, rédige une Très brève relation sur la destruction des Indes qu'il lit à l'empereur Charles Quint, à Burgos, en 1540, en vue de le convaincre de mettre un terme aux exactions des colons et de corriger le système des encomiendas, qu'il connaît bien pour avoir lui-même reçu une encomienda en 1510. He participated in campaigns at Bayamo and Camagüey and in the massacre of Hatuey. Christianity and Freedom: Historical Perspectives. Bartolomé de Las Casas was born around 1484 in Seville, Spain. [73] The verdict was inconclusive, and both debaters claimed that they had won. [56] The encomienda had, in fact, legally been abolished in 1523, but it had been reinstituted in 1526, and in 1530 a general ordinance against slavery was reversed by the Crown. [14], With his father, Las Casas immigrated to the island of Hispaniola in 1502, on the expedition of Nicolás de Ovando. [57], When the hearings started in 1542, Las Casas presented a narrative of atrocities against the natives of the Indies that would later be published in 1552 as "Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias". The colonist would only have rights to a certain portion of the total labor, so that a part of the Indians were always resting and taking care of the sick. To restabilize the political situation the encomenderos started pushing not only for the repeal of the New Laws, but for turning the encomiendas into perpetual patrimony of the encomenderos – the worst possible outcome from Las Casas's point of view. Découvrez toutes nos lettres déjà parues. La Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (en français : Très bref rapport ou Très brève relation de la destruction des Indes) est un livre écrit à partir de 1539 par le frère dominicain Bartolomé de las Casas et publié en 1552. Bartolomé de Las Casas et le philosophe Sepulveda sur la question de l’appartenance des Indiens d’Amérique à l’humanité. The rumours even included him among the dead. One of the stated purposes for writing the account was Las Casas's fear of Spain coming under divine punishment and his concern for the souls of the native peoples. Sauvage spoke highly of Las Casas to the king, who appointed Las Casas and Sauvage to write a new plan for reforming the governmental system of the Indies. In 1513, as a chaplain, Las Casas participated in Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar's and Pánfilo de Narváez' conquest of Cuba. Une lettre pour tous les passionnés d'Histoire, Publié ou mis à jour le : 2018-11-27 09:50:14. In his early writings, he advocated the use of African slaves instead of Natives in the West Indian colonies but did so without knowing that the Portuguese were carrying out "brutal and unjust wars in the name of spreading the faith". Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474-1566) est un dominicain espagnol, avocat de formation, qui s'opposa violemment au traitement réservé aux « Indiens » par les colonisateurs espagnols. Bartolomé avait conservé une relation intime avec les fils de … Las Casas advocated the dismantlement of the city of Asunción and the subsequent gathering of Indians into communities of about 1,000 Indians to be situated as satellites of Spanish towns or mining areas. Tout juste ont-ils su saisir au vol une suggestion malheureuse de Las Casas. Las Casas was resolved to see Prince Charles who resided in Flanders, but on his way there he passed Madrid and delivered to the regents a written account of the situation in the Indies and his proposed remedies. omme le montre le doc. Ce fut l'origine de la traite atlantique. Las Casas returned to Guatemala in 1537 wanting to employ his new method of conversion based on two principles: 1) to preach the Gospel to all men and treat them as equals, and 2) to assert that conversion must be voluntary and based on knowledge and understanding of the faith. Travelling back to Spain to recruit more missionaries, he continued lobbying for the abolition of the encomienda, gaining an important victory by the passage of the New Laws in 1542. His influence at court was so great that some even considered that he had the final word in choosing the members of the Council of the Indies. In the Catholic Church, the Dominicans introduced his cause for canonization in 1976. Las Casas worked to recruit a large number of peasants who would want to travel to the islands, where they would be given lands to farm, cash advances, and the tools and resources they needed to establish themselves there. The Crown had for example received a fifth of the large number of slaves taken in the recent Mixtón War, and so could not be held clean of guilt under Las Casas's strict rules. ", https://www.la-croix.com/Archives/2002-10-03/Ouverture-de-la-cause-de-beatification-de-Bartolome-de-La-Casas-_NP_-2002-10-03-166954, Frayba.org.mx – Fray Bartolome de las Casas Centro de Derechos Humanos, "Bills and Currency in Current Circulation", A Glimpse at the History of Lascassas School, "From Conquest to Constitutions: Retrieving a Latin American Tradition of the Idea of Human Rights", "Historical reality and the detractors of Father Las Casas", "Las Casas and Indigenism in the Sixteenth Century", "Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas: A Biographical Sketch", "The Forgotten Crucible: The Latin American Influence on the Universal Human Rights Idea", "Introduction: Approaches to Las Casas, 1535–1970", "Controversy between Sepúlveda and Las Casas", "Bartolomé de las Casas and Truth: Toward a Spirituality of Solidarity", "Another face of empire. Benavente described indignantly how Las Casas had once denied baptism to an aging Indian who had walked many leagues to receive it, only on the grounds that he did not believe that the man had received sufficient doctrinal instruction. De retour en Amérique, Bartolomé de Las Casas prend conscience de l’injustice du système de l'encomienda. Une fois de plus l'Eglise en a été la complice . [102][103], The Dominican friars Antonio de Montesinos and Pedro de Córdoba had reported extensive violence already in the first decade of the conquest of the Indies, and throughout the conquest of the Americas, there were reports of abuse of the natives by friars and priests and ordinary citizens, and many massacres of indigenous people were reported in full by those who perpetrated them. He proposed 12 other remedies, all having the specific aim of improving the situation for the Indians and limiting the powers that colonists were able to exercise over them.[84]. These congregated a group of Christian Indians in the location of what is now the town of Rabinal. "History of the Indies" has never been fully translated into English. Il est né à Séville en 1484 et meurt à Madrid en 1566. [16] In 1510, he was ordained a priest, the first one to be ordained in the Americas. Las Casas had a considerable part in selecting them and writing the instructions under which their new government would be instated, largely based on Las Casas's memorial. The tragic outcome of Las Casas's great mainland adventure made him turn his life in a new direction. In 1555 his old Franciscan adversary Toribio de Benavente Motolinia wrote a letter in which he described Las Casas as an ignorant, arrogant troublemaker. In 1514, Las Casas was studying a passage in the book Ecclesiasticus (Sirach)[25] 34:18–22[a] for a Pentecost sermon and pondering its meaning. He is the subject of the poetic sequence "Homage to Bartolomé de Las Casas" by the American poet Daniel Tobin, which appears in his book Double Life. "7 – Faith, Liberty, and the Defense of the Poor: Bishop Las Casas in the History of Human Right", Hertzke, Allen D., and Timothy Samuel Shah, eds. The second was a change in the labor policy so that instead of a colonist owning the labor of specific Indians, he would have a right to man-hours, to be carried out by no specific persons. After several months of negotiations Las Casas set sail alone; the peasants he had brought had deserted, and he arrived in his colony already ravaged by Spaniards.[44]. Le débat est présidé par l'envoyé du pape Salvatore Roncieri. Early Life . In Peru, power struggles between conquistadors and the viceroy became an open civil war in which the conquistadors led by Gonzalo Pizarro rebelled against the New Laws and defeated and executed the viceroy Blasco Núñez Vela in 1546. En attendant, en 1544, le fils de Charles Quint, le futur Philippe II, profite d'une absence de son père pour mettre au défi Las Casas de mettre en application ses préconisations à la tête d'un évêché. I came to realize that black slavery was as unjust as Indian slavery... and I was not sure that my ignorance and good faith would secure me in the eyes of God." Residencial Las Casas in Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico is named after Las Casas. In May 1517, Las Casas was forced to travel back to Spain to denounce to the regent the failure of the Hieronymite reforms. During this time the Hieronimytes had time to form a more pragmatic view of the situation than the one advocated by Las Casas; their position was precarious as every encomendero on the Islands was fiercely against any attempts to curtail their use of native labour. [109][110], In 1848, Ciudad de San Cristóbal, then the capital of the Mexican state of Chiapas, was renamed San Cristóbal de Las Casas in honor of its first bishop. [10] His father, Pedro de las Casas, a merchant, descended from one of the families that had migrated from France to found the Christian Seville; his family also spelled the name Casaus. quoted from, Las Casas's retraction of his views on African slavery is expressed particularly in chapters 102 and 129, Book III of his, Also translated and published in English as. [64] As a bishop Las Casas was involved in frequent conflicts with the encomenderos and secular laity of his diocese: among the landowners there was the conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo. [42] He suggested fortifying the northern coast of Venezuela, establishing ten royal forts to protect the Indians and starting up a system of trade in gold and pearls. Il comprend vite la situation qui s'est mise en place dans le nouveau Monde. 1) et de convertir les amérindiens à la religion catholique (comme le dit Pizarro cité dans le document 1). [36] Worried by the visions that Las Casas had drawn up of the situation in the Indies, Cardinal Cisneros decided to send a group of Hieronymite monks to take over the government of the islands. Another important part of the plan was to introduce a new kind of sustainable colonization, and Las Casas advocated supporting the migration of Spanish peasants to the Indies where they would introduce small-scale farming and agriculture, a kind of colonization that didn't rely on resource depletion and Indian labor. Demographic studies such as those of colonial Mexico by Sherburne F. Cook in the mid-20th century suggested that the decline in the first years of the conquest was indeed drastic, ranging between 80 and 90%, due to many different causes but all ultimately traceable to the arrival of the Europeans.

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